Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles, Graphene and Graphene decorated by Zinc Oxide nanoparticles

Document Type: Reasearch Paper


1 Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Medicine, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.

3 School of medicine, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

4 Department of Biology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.


Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and graphene carbon material, due to lower drug resistance, can replace antibiotics, and by decorating of graphene with Zn-NPs, their properties can be greatly improved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial effects of ZnO-NPs biosynthesized using Crocus Sativus petal extract, graphene and graphene decorated by ZnO-NPs biosynthesized using Crocus Sativus petal extract (G-ZnO). Their physicochemical characterizations were performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), revealing that ZnO-NPs with a mean size of 25 nm and spherical-shape were distributed uniformly on the surface of the graphene without aggregation. The antioxidant activities of ZnO-NPs, graphene and G-ZnO were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS assays. Antibacterial activities of three compounds were tested against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using macrodilution method. The results of this study showed that these three compounds have antioxidant and antibacterial effects. And it was show that but also antioxidant and antibacterial activity of G-ZnO was higher than ZnO-NPs and graphene. G-ZnO could be useful as a natural antioxidant and antibacterial in the pharmacy industry.


Main Subjects

[1]         Choi K-H., Nam K., Lee S-Y., Cho G., Jung J-S., Kim H-J., (2017), Antioxidant potential and antibacterial efficiency of caffeic acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles. Nanomaterials. 7: 148-153.

[2]         Phull A., Abbas Q., Ali A., Raza H., Ja S., Zia M., (2016), Antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from crude extract of Bergenia ciliata. Futur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2: 31-36.

 [3]        Rehana D., Mahendiran D., Senthil Kumar R., Kalilur Rahiman A., (2017), In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using different plant extracts. Bioproc. Biosyst. Eng. 4: 943-957.

[4]         Pelle F. Della., Compagnone D., ( 2018), Nanomaterial-based sensing and biosensing of phenolic compounds and related antioxidant capacity in food. Sensors (Switzerland). 18: 462-468.

[5]         Zaman S., ( 2012), Synthesis of ZnO, CuO and their composite nanostructures for optoelectronics, sensing and catalytic applications. Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Dissertations. No. 1467 .

[6]         Sirelkhatim A., Mahmud S., Seeni A., Kaus N. H. M., Ann L. C., Bakhori S. K. M., (2015), Review on zinc oxide nanoparticles: Antibacterial activity and toxicity mechanism. Nano-Micro Lett. 7: 219–242.

[7]         Yuan Y. G., Wang Y. H., Xing H. H., Gurunathan S., ( 2017), Quercetin-mediated synthesis of graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle nanocomposites: A suitable alternative nanotherapy for neuroblastoma. Int. J. Nanomedic. 12: 5819–5839.

 [8]        Zhong L., Yun K., (2015), Graphene oxide-modified zno particles: Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties. Int. J. Nanomedic. 10: 79-92.

[9]         Rajeswari R., Prabu H. G., Amutha D. M., ( 2017), One Pot Hydrothermal synthesis characterizations of silver nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for its enhanced antibacterial and antioxidant properties. IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 10: 64–69.

 [10]      Augusto L., Luna V. De., Carolina A., Moraes M. De., Consonni S. R., Pereira C. D., ( 2016), Comparative in vitro toxicity of a graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite and the pristine counterparts toward macrophages. J. Nanobiotechnol. 14: 1–17.

 [11]      Moussa H., Girot E., Mozet K., Alem H., Medjahdi G., Schneider R., ( 2016), ZnO rods /reduced graphene oxide composites prepared via a solvothermal reaction for efficient sunlight-driven photocatalysis. Appl. Catal. B. Environ. 185: 11–21.

[12]       Byun J., ( 2015), Emerging frontiers of graphene in biomedicine. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25: 145–151.

[13]       Zharov V. P., Mercer K. E., Galitovskaya E. N., Smeltzer M. S., ( 2006), Photothermal nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics for selective killing of bacteria targeted with gold nanoparticles. Biophys. J. 90: 619–627.

 [14]      Mahajan C. R., Joshi L. B., Chaudhari V. R., ( 2016), Enhance antioxidant property of Silver nanoparticle decorated Graphene Oxide nanocomposite. ICRETM. 546–551.

[15]       Yuan Y-G., Gurunathan S., (2017), Combination of graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle nanocomposites and cisplatin enhances apoptosis and autophagy in human cervical cancer cells. Int. J. Nanomed. 12: 6537-6558.

[16]       Stankovich  S., Dikin D. A., Piner R. D., Kohlhaas K. A., Kleinhammes A., Jia Y., (2017), Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon. 45: 1558-1565.

[17]       Weng S. C., Brahma S., Chang C. C., Huang J. L., (2019), Synthesis of self-assembled hollow-sphere ZnO/rGO nanocomposite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 14: 3727–3739.

[18]       Liu J., Andrade M. D. R., Chata G., Peng Y., Roseman G., Lu J. E., (2018), Photo-enhanced antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphene quantum dot nanocomposites. Nanoscale. 10: 158-166.

[19]       Chandrasekhar P. S., Komarala V. K., (2017), Graphene/ZnO nanocomposite as an electron transport layer for perovskite solar cells; The effect of graphene concentration on photovoltaic performance. R. S. C. Adv. 7: 28610–28615.

[20]       Suresh D., Nethravathi P. C., Udayabhanu Rajanaika H., Nagabhushana H., Sharma S. C., ( 2015), Green synthesis of multifunctional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using Cassia fistula plant extract and their photodegradative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Proc. 31: 446–454.

[21]       Ekezie F. C., Suneetha J., Maheswari U., ( 2016), Biogenic synthesis of zinc nanoparticle from ethanol extract of bitter gourd and evaluation of its in-vitro antioxidant efficacy. IJISR. 5: 585–587.

[22]       Everett S. A., Dennis M. F., Patel K. B., Maddix S., Kundu S. C., Willson R. L., (1996), Scavenging of Nitrogen Dioxide, Thiyl, and Sulfonyl free radicals by the nutritional antioxidant -carotene. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 3988–3994.

[23]       Qiu Y., Wang Z., Owens A. C. E., Kulaots I., Chen Y., Kane A. B., ( 2014), Antioxidant chemistry of graphene-based materials and its role in oxidation protection technology. Nanoscale. 6: 11744–11755.

[24]       Hu W., Peng C., Luo W., Lv M., Li X., Li D., ( 2010), Graphene-based antibacterial paper. ACS Nano. 4: 4317–4323.

[25]       Liu S., Zeng T. H., Hofmann M., Burcombe E., Wei J., Jiang R., ( 2011), Antibacterial activity of Graphite, Graphite Oxide, Graphene Oxide, and reduced Graphene Oxide: Membrane and Oxidative stress. ACS Nano. 9: 6971–6980.

[26]       Zuo P., Feng H., Xu Z., Zhang L., Zhang Y., Xia W., ( 2013), Fabrication of biocompatible and mechanically reinforced graphene oxide-chitosan nanocomposite films. Chem. Cent. J. 8: 1–11.

[27]       Dobrucka R., Długaszewska J., ( 2016), Biosynthesis and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles using Trifolium pratense flower extract. Saudi. J. Biol. Sci. 23: 517–523.

[28]       Z Emami-Karvani Z., Chehrazi P., ( 2012), Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Afric. J. Microbiol. Res. 5: 1368–1373.

[29]       Reddy K. M., Feris K., Bell J., Wingett D. G., Hanley C., Punnoosa A., ( 2007), Selective toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90: 1–8.

[30]        Hieu N. H., Vi  D. T. T.,  (2017), Synthesis of Zinc Oxide/graphene oxide nanocomposites as antibacterial   materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. J. Sci. Technol.  55: 266-275.

[31]        Zhang J., Chen X., Mi b., Wei P., Fei B., Mu X., (2017), Antimicrobial bamboo materials functionalized with ZnO and Graphene Oxide nanocomposites. Materials. 10: 239-245.