Photocatalytic degradaton of Sulfathiazole using nanosized CdO in aqueous solution

Document Type: Reasearch Paper

Authors

Department of Chemistry, Center Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Template synthesis is a powerful method for the preparation of nanoscale materials with specific size and shape. Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles were synthesized by using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Cd(OAc)2.2H2O and sodium hydroxide as starting materials. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern proves that the final product has cubic phase and the particle size diameter of the nanoparticles are 36.4 nm. The SEM was used for direct visualization of the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The morphology of the CdO was found nanospherical. Antibiotics are a major class of drugs included in the designation of emerging contaminants, representing a high risk to natural ecosystems. We studied the degradation of Sulfathiazole antibiotic by nanosized CdO under ultraviolet irradiation. Various experimental parameters such as initial Sulfathiazole (STZ) concentrations, initial CdO concentration and initial pH were investigated. According to the results this method can be good performance in removal of Sulfathiazole.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Grado-Caffaro M. A., (2008), Quantitative discussion on band-gap energy and carrier density of CdO in terms of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Phys. Lett. A. 372: 4858-4860.

[2] Yakuphanoglu F., (2010), Nanocluster CdO thin film by sol-gel for solar cell applications. Appl. Surf. Sci. 257: 1413-1419.

[3] Kamble A. S., Pawar R. C., Patil J. Y., Suryavanshi S. S., Patil P. S., (2011), From nanowires to cubes of CdO: Ethanol gas response. J. Alloys Compd. 509: 1035–1039.

[4] Gupta R. K., Ghosh K., Patel R., Kahol P. K., (2011), Low temperature processed highly conducting, transparent, and wide band gap Gd doped CdO thin films for transparent electronics. J. Alloys Compd. 509: 4146-4149.

[5] Singh G., Kapoor I. P. S., Dubey R., Srivastava P.,  (2011), Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of CdO nanocrystals. Mater. Sci. Eng.: B. 176: 121-126.

[6] Tadjarodi A., Imani M., (2016), Synthesis of porous CdO sheet-like nanostructure based on soft template model and its application in dye pollutants adsorption. Int. J. Nano Dimens.  7: 150-159.

[7] Vijaykarthik D., Kirithika M., Prithivikumaran N., Jeyakumaran N., (2014), Synthesis and characterization of Cadmium Oxide nanoparticles for antimicrobial activity. Int. J. Nano Dimens.  5: 557-562.

[8] Li J., Ni Y., Liu J., Hong J., (2009), Preparation, conversion, and comparison of the photocatalytic property of Cd(OH)2, CdO. CdS and CdSe. J. Phys. Chem. Solid. 70: 1285-1289.

[9] Yakuphanoglu F., Caglar M., Caglar Y., Ilican S., (2010), Electrical characterization of nanocluster n-CdO/p-Si heterojunction diode. J. Alloys Compd. 506: 188-193.

[10] Dong W., Zhu C., (2003), Optical properties of surface-modified CdO nanoparticles. Opt. Mater. 22: 227-233.

[11] Chang Q., Chang C., Zhang X., Ye H., Shi G., Zhang W., Wang Y., Xin X., Song Y., (2007), Enhanced optical limiting properties in suspensions of CdO nanowires. Opt. Commun. 274: 201-205.

[12] Rashidi Ranjbar Z., Sheikhshoaie I., Bagheri Z., (2014), Solid state preparation of CdO nano-particles by thermolysis of a precursor as compacted nanosheet. Int. J.Nano Dimens. 5: 409-413.

[13] Liu X., Li C., Han S., Han J., Zhou C., (2003), Synthesis and electronic transport studies of CdO nanoneedles. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82: 1950-1952.

[14] Sarmah A. K., Meyer M. T., Boxall B. A., (2006), A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment. Chemosphere. 65: 725-759.

[15] Schwartz T., Kohnen W., Jansen B., Obst U., (2003), Detection of antibiotic-resistant 493 bacteria and their resistance genes in wastewater, surface water, and drinking water 494 biofilms. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 43: 325-335.

[16] Schwartz T., Volkmann H., Kirchen S., Kohnen W., Schon-Holz K., Jansen B., Obst U., (2006), Real-time PCR detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical and municipal wastewater and genotyping of the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 57: 158-167.

[17] Seifrtová M., Pena A., Lino C. M., Solich P., (2008), Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in hospital and municipal wastewaters in coimbra by liquid chromatography with a monolithic column and fluorescence detection. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391: 799-805.

[18] Shaojun J., Shourong  Z., Daqiang Y., Lianhong W., Liangyan C.,( 2008), Aqueous oxytetracycline degradation and the toxicity change of degradation compounds in photoirradiation process. J. Environ. Sci. 20: 806-813.