Photocatalytic degradation of 2, 4, 6-Ttrichlorophenol with CdS nanoparticles synthesis by microwave-assisted sol-gel method

Document Type: Reasearch Paper

Authors

Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

10.7508/ijnd.2016.03.010

Abstract

This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of photocatalyst CdS nanoparticles for investigation of photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by the microwave-assisted sol-gel method and characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, filed emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The average crystallite size was found to be 46 nm. The influences of catalyst amount, contaminant concentration, and pH of the reaction solution were evaluated and optimized. Highest degradation was obtained after 3hours UV-C light irradiation. The kinetic was evaluated in different contaminant concentrations under optimized conditions. It showed that the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation reactions follow pseudo first order kinetic.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Xu L., Wang J., (2015), Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol using magnetic nanoscaled Fe3O4/CeO2 composite as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst. Sep. Purif. Technol. 149: 255-264.

[2] Anandan S., Vinu A., Mori T., Gokulakrishnan N., Srinivasu P., Murugesan V., Ariga K., (2007), Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol using lanthanum doped ZnO in aqueous suspension. Catal. Commun. 8: 1377-1382.

[3] Gaya U. I., Abdullah A. H., Hussein M. Z., Zainal Z., (2010), Photocatalytic removal of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol from water exploiting commercial ZnO powder. Desalination. 263: 176-182.

[4] Pouretedal H. R., Motamedi H., Amiri A., (2012), Aromatic compounds photodegradation catalyzed by ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. Desalination and Water Treatment. 44: 92-99.

[5] Peng H., Cui J., Zhan H., Zhang X., (2015), Improved photodegradation and detoxification of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol by lanthanum doped magnetic TiO2. Chem. Eng. J. 264: 316-321.

[6] Czaplicka M., (2006), Photo-degradation of chlorophenols in the aqueous solution. J. Hazard. Mater. 134: 45-59.

[7] Zhu H., Jiang R., Xiao L., Chang Y., Guan Y., Li X., Zeng G., (2009), Photocatalytic decolorization and degradation of Congo Red on innovative crosslinked chitosan/nano-CdS composite catalyst under visible light irradiation. J. Hazard. Mater. 169: 933-940.

[8] Kadam A., Dhabbe R., Kokate M., Garadkar K., (2014), Room temperature synthesis of CdS nanoflakes for photocatalytic properties. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. in Elect. 25: 1887-1892.

[9] Soltani N., Saion E., Yunus W. M. M., Erfani M., Navasery M., Bahmanrokh G., Rezaee K., (2014), Enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles based on organic and inorganic coating. Appl. Surf. Sci. 290: 440-447.

[10] Osugi M. E., Umbuzeiro G. A., De Castro F. J., Zanoni M. V. B., (2006), Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of remazol turquoise blue and toxicological assessment of its oxidation products. J. Hazard. Mater. 137: 871-877.

[11] Gota K., Suresh S., (2014), Removal of Phenol from Binary Aqueous Solutions with 4-Nitrophenol by Photocatalytic System. Curr. Trends in Technol. Sci. 3: 69-72.

[12] Eskandari P., Kazemi F., Zand Z., (2014), Photocatalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds using CdS nanostructure under blue LED irradiation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chemistry. 274: 7-12.

[13] Hernández-Gordillo A., Romero A. G., Tzompantzi F., Gómez R., (2013), New nanostructured CdS fibers for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Powder Technol. 250: 97-102.

[14] Boukhatem H., Djouadi L., Abdelaziz N., Khalaf H., (2013), Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of CdS–montmorillonite nanocomposites. Applied Clay Science. 72: 44-48.

[15] Shi J. W., Yan X., Cui H. J., Zong X., Fu M. L., Chen S., Wang L., (2012), Low-temperature synthesis of CdS/TiO2 composite photocatalysts: influence of synthetic procedure on photocatalytic activity under visible light. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 356: 53-60.

[16] Pant B., Barakat N. A., Pant H. R., Park M., Saud P. S., Kim J. W., Kim H. Y., (2014), Synthesis and photocatalytic activities of CdS/TiO2 nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers for high efficient adsorption and simultaneous decomposition of organic dyes. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 434: 159-166.

[17] Thongtem T., Phuruangrat A., Thongtem S., (2008), Characterization of nano-and micro-crystalline CdS synthesized using cyclic microwave radiation. J. Phys. Chem. Solids. 69: 1346-1349.

[18] Nagaraja C., Kaur M., (2013), Template-free synthesis of CdS microspheres composed of nanocrystals with a new sulfur source. Mater. Lett. 111: 230-233.

[19] Yao K., Lu W., Wang J., (2011), Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis, structural characterization, and photocatalytic performance of CdS nanocrystals. Mater. Chem. Phys. 130: 1175-1181.

[20] Hernández-Gordillo A., Romero A. G., Tzompantzi F., Gómez R., (2014), Kinetic study of the 4-nitrophenol photooxidation and photoreduction reactions using CdS. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 144: 507-513.

[21] Cordoncillo E., Escribano P., Monros G., Tena M., Orera V., Carda J., (1995), The preparation of CdS particles in silica glasses by a sol-gel method. J. Solid State Chem. 118: 1-5.

[22] Costa V. C., Lameiras F. S., Sansviero M. T. C., Simões A., Vasconcelos W., (2004), Preparation of CdS-containing silica–titania composites by the sol–gel process. J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 348: 190-194.

[23] Hu Y., Liu Y., Qian H., Li Z., Chen J., (2010), Coating colloidal carbon spheres with CdS nanoparticles: microwave-assisted synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity. Langmuir. 26: 18570-18575.

[24] Li W., Lee J., (2008), Microwave-assisted Sol− Gel synthesis and photoluminescence characterization of LaPO4: Eu3+, Li+ nanophosphors. The J. Physical Chem. C. 112: 11679-11684.

[25] Ch A., Rao V., Ch S. C., (2014), Structural properties of CdS nano particles prepared in the presence of organic solvent. Appl. Sci. Res. 5: 99-105.

[26] Shaikh S. U., Siddiqui F. Y., Desale D. J., Ghule A. V., Singh F., Kulriya P. K., Sharma R., (2015), Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on structural and opto-electrical properties of bi-layer CdS–Bi 2 S 3 thin films prepared by solution growth technique at room temperature. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 106: 193-198.

[27] Raut B., Godse P., Pawar S., Chougule M., Bandgar D., Sen S., Patil V., (2013), New process for fabrication of polyaniline–CdS nanocomposites: structural, morphological and optoelectronic investigations. J. Phys. Chem. Solids. 74: 236-244.

[28] Zhu H. Y., Yao J., Jiang R., Fu Y. Q., Wu Y. H., Zeng G.-M., (2014), Enhanced decolorization of azo dye solution by cadmium sulfide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composite in combination with hydrogen peroxide under simulated solar light irradiation. Ceram. Int. 40: 3769-3777.