Study of 1-Chloro-4-Nitrobenzene adsorption on Carbon nanofibers by experimental design

Document Type: Reasearch Paper

Authors

1 Department of Chemistry, East Azarbaijan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Chemistry, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Department of Chemistry, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran.

10.7508/ijnd.2016.01.009

Abstract

In this study, the adsorption of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (1C4NB) on carbon nanofibers (CNFs), was investigated in a batch system. The combined effects of operating parameters such as contact time, pH, initial 1C4NB concentration, and CNFs dosage on the adsorption of 1C4NB byCNFs were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). The analysis of variance results confirmed that there was significant agreement between the model and experimental data. In addition, it was indicated that the residuals followed a normal distribution.The screening experiments showed that significant factors in 1C4NB removal were CNFs dosage, interaction between initial 1C4NB concentration-CNFs dosage and CNFs dosage-contact time. High efficiency removal (>90%) was obtained under optimal value of process parameters in the first 6 min of the removal process. The results indicate that RSM is a suitable method for modeling and optimizing the process, so that experimental design by RSM leads to time and cost saving.Non-linear form of Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were fitted to adsorption equilibrium data. The results showed that the isotherm data can be well described by Freundlich isotherm equation.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]  Shen J. M., Chen Z. L., Xu Z. Z., Li X. Y., Xu B. B., Qi F., (2008), Kinetics and mechanism of degradation of pchloronitrobenzene in water by ozonation. J. Hazard. Mater. 52: 1325-1331.

[2]  Xu Z., Chen Z., Joll C., Ben Y., Shen J., Tao H., (2009), Catalytic efficiency and stability of cobalt hydroxide for decomposition of ozone and p-chloronitrobenzene in water. Catal.  Commun. 10: 1221-1225.

[3]  Garcia-Pena I., Ortiz I., (2008), Biofiltration of BTEX by the fungus Paecilomyces variotii. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 62: 442-447.

[4]  Lee K., Jean J., Wang S. M., (2008), Effects of inorganic nutrient levels on the biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) by Pseudomonas spp. in a laboratoryporous media sand aquifer model. Bioresour. Technol. 99: 7807-7815.

[5]  Littlejohns J. V., Daugulis A. J., (2009), A two phase partitioning airlift bioreactor for the treatment of BTEX contaminated gases. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 103: 1077-1086.

[6]  Dehghanzadeh R., Aslani H., (2011), Interaction of acrylonitrile vapors on a bench scale biofilter treating styrene-polluted waste gas streams. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng. 8: 159-168.

[7]  Linda Z., Yong G. L., Martin H., Eric H., (2006), Removal of VOCs by photo catalysis process using adsorption enhanced TiO2.SiO2 catalyst. Chem. Eng. Process. 45: 959-964.

[8]  Qijin G., Qingjie G., Changing C., (2008), Investigation into photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene in a circulated photocatalytic reactor (CPCR). Chem. Eng. Technol. 31: 1-9.

[9]  Ardizzone C. L., Bianchi G., Cappelletti A., (2008), Photocatalytic degradation of toluene in the gas phase: Relationship between surface species and catalyst features. Ind. Chem. 42: 6671-6676.

[10] Gholami M., Nassehinia H. R., Jonidi-Jafari A., Nasseri S., Esrafili A., (2014), Comparison of Benzene & Toluene removal from synthetic polluted air with use of Nano photocatalyticTiO2/ ZNO process. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng. 12: 1-8.

[11] Hofmann J., Freier U., Wecks M., Demund A., (2005), Degradation of halogenated organic compounds in ground water by heterogeneous catalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Top. Catal. 33: 243-247.

[12] Navalon S., Alvaro M., Garcia H., (2010), Heterogeneous Fenton catalysts based on clays, silicas and zeolites. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 99: 1-26.

[13] Tabatabaei S. M., Mehrizad A., Gharbani P., (2012), Nanocatalytic ozonation of 4 -nitrochlorobenzene in aqueous solutions. E. J. Chem. 9: 1968-1975.

[14] Boikov E. V., Sviridova T. V., Vishnetskaya M. V., Sviridov D. V., Kokorin A. I., (2013), Oxidation of benzene on a vanadium-molybdenum catalyst in the presence of thiophene. Russ. Phys. Ch. 7: 251-254.

[15] Hernandez M. A., Corona I., Gonzalez A. L., (2005), Quantitative study of the absorption of aromatic hydro carbons (Benzene, Toluene and n- Xylene) on dealuminated clinoptilolites. Ind. Chem. 44: 2908-2916.

[16] Gauden P. A., Terzyk A. P., Cwiertnia M. S., Rychlicki G., Newcombe G., Kowalczyk P., (2006), Benzene adsorption on carbonaceous materials: The influence of pore structure on the state of the adsorbate. Appl. Surf. Sci. 253: 2525-2539.

[17] Seifi L., Torabian A., Kazemian H., Bidhendi G. N., Azimi A., Nazmara S., Mohammadi M., (2011), Adsorption of BTEX on surfactant modified granulated natural zeolite nano particles: Parameters optimizing by applying Taguchi experimental design method. Clean-Soil. Air Water. 39: 939-948.

[18] Moreno-Pirajan J. C., Giraldo L., (2013), Adsorption of Benzene and Phenolic Derivatives in Monolithic Carbon Aerogels. Chem. Sci. Trans. 2: 251-261.

[19] Behnajady M. A., Hajiahmadi M., (2013), Intensification of Azo dye removal rate in the presence of immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles and inorganic anions under UV-C irradiation: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology. Int. J. Photoenergy. 2013: 1-11.

[20] Khalighyan N., Hooshmand N., Razzaghi-Asl N., Zare K., Miri R., (2014), Response surface strategy in the synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Int. J. Nano Dimens. 5: 421-430.

[21] Omidvar L., Pahlavanzadeh H., Mousavi S. M., (2014), Statistical evaluation of a liquid desiccant dehumidification system using RSM and theoretical study based on the effectiveness NTU model. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20: 2975-2983.

[22] Ravanipour M., Rezaei-Kalantary R., Mohseni-Bandpi A., Esrafili A., Farzadkia M., Hashemi-Najafabadi S., (2015), Experimental design approach to the optimization of PAHs bioremediation from artificially contaminated soil: application of variables screening development. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng. 13: 1-10.

[23] Mohan N., Khannan G. K., Simha U., Kumar N. S., (2012), Studies of benzene adsorption using response surface methodology. Indian J. Chem. Technol. 19: 257-267.

[24] Chaudhary N., Balomajumder C., (2014), Optimization study of adsorption parameters for removal of phenol on aluminum impregnated fly ash using response surface methodology. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. 45: 852-859.

[25] Alam M. Z., Muyibi S. A., Toramae J., (2007), Statistical optimization of adsorption processes for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches. J. Environ. Sci. 19: 674-677.

[26] Bezerra M. A., Santelli R. E., Oliveira E. P., Villar L. S., Escaleira L. A., (2008), Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta. 76: 965-977.

[27] Kalavathy M. H., Regupathi I., Pillai M. G., Miranda L. R. , (2009), Modelling, analysis and optimizat ion of adsorption parameters for H3PO4 activated rubber wood sawdust using response surface methodology (RSM). Colloids Surf. B. 70: 35-45.

[28] Aravind J., Lenin C., Nancyflavia C., Rashika P., Saravanan S., (2015), Response surface methodology optimization of nickel (II) removal using pigeon pea pod biosorbent. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 12: 105-114.

[29] Chowdhury S., Mishra R., Saha P., Kushwaha P., (2011), Adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption of Malachite Green onto chemically modified rice husk. Desalination. 265: 159-168.

[30] Rasoulifard M. H., Haddadi Esfahlani F., Mehrizadeh H., Sehati N., (2010), Removal of C.I. Basic Yellow 2 from aqueous solution by low-cost adsorbent: Hardened paste of Portland cement. Environ. Technol. 31: 277-284.

[31] Nazari S., Gharbani P., (2013), Adsorption of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene from aqueous solutions onto single-walled carbon nanotubes. Int. J. Nano Dimens. 3: 263-269.

[32] Languuir I., (1916), The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 38: 2221-2295.

[33] Freundlich H. M. F., (1906), Uber die adsorption in losungen. Z. Phys. Chem. 57: 385-470.

[34] Temkin M., Pyzhev V., (1940), Kinetics of the Synthesis of Ammonia on Promoted Iron Catalysts. Jour. Phys. Chem. 13: 851-867.

[35] Behnajady M. A., Bimeghdar S., (2014), Synthesis of mesoporous NiO nanoparticles and their application in the adsorption of Cr (VI). Chem. Eng. J. 239: 105-113.

[36] Wu C. H., (2007), Adsorption of reactive dye onto carbon nanotubes: equi librium, kinetics and thermodynamics. J. Hazard. Mater. 144: 93-100.