Synthesis and characterization of visible light active S-doped TiO2 nanophotocatalyst

Document Type: Reasearch Paper


1 Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, 11365/8486 Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-175 Tehran, Iran



S-doped and bare mesoporous TiO2 were prepared using titanium tetraisopropoxide and thiocarbamide as raw materials. Prepared materials were characterized by means of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The band gap of S-doped was estimated from UV-Vis spectroscopy data to be 2.8 eV. The specific surface area of S-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained via the BET method, calculated to be 181.3 m2/g and its pore size distribution curve revealed that the average diameter of the pores is 12.3 nm using BJH method. Photocatalytic efficiency of synthesized S-doped mesoporous TiO2 was tested for degradation of Congored azo dye under ultraviolet and visible lights. The results revealed that the S-doped mesoporous TiO2 is the most effective under visible light in comparison with bare one.


Main Subjects

[1]  Pei F., Liu Y,. Xu S., Lu J., Wang C., Cao S., (2013), Nanocomposite of graphene oxide with nitrogendoped TiO2 exhibiting enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for hydrogen evolution. Inter. J. Hydr. Energy. 38: 2670-2677.

[2]  Tian H., Ma J., Li K., Li J., (2009), Hydrothermal synthesis of S-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their photocatalytic ability for degradation of methyl orange. Ceramic Int. 35: 1289-1292.

[3]  Hu S., Li F., Fan Z., (2011), The influence of preparation method, nitrogen source, and post-treatment on the photocatalytic activity and stability of N-doped TiO2nanopowder. J. Hazard. Mater. 196: 248-254.

[4]  Asiri A. M., Al-Amoudi M. S.,Bazaid S. A., Adam A. A., Alamry K. A., Anandan S., (2014), Enhanced visible light photodegradation of water pollutants over N-, S-doped titanium dioxide and n-titanium dioxide in the presence of inorganic anions. J. Saudi. Chem. Soc.18: 155-163.

[5]  Zhao B., Mele G., Pio I., Li J., Palmisano L.,Vasapollo G., (2010), Degradation of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) Using Fe- TiO2 as a Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Catalyst. J. Hazard Mater. 176: 569-574.

[6]  Hamadanian M., Reisi-Vanani A.,Majedi A., (2010), characterization and effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation and photocatalytic activity of Cu, Scodoped TiO2 nanoparticles. Appl. Surf. Sci. 256: 1837- 1844.

[7]  Zhang Z., Wang X., Long J.,Gu Q., Ding Z., Fu X., (2010), Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide visible light photocatalyst: Spectroscopic dentification of photoactive centers. J. Catal. 276: 201-214.

[8]  Janitabar-Darzi S.,Mahjoub A. R., Nilchi A., (2009), Investigation of structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin film synthesized by sol.gel templating technique. Physica E. 42: 176-181.

[9]  Wang Y., Li J., Peng P., Lu T., Wang L., (2008), Preparation of S-TiO2 photocatalyst and photodegradation of L-acid under visible light. J. Appl. Surf. Sci. 254: 5276-5280.

[10] Janitabar Darzi S., (2014), Mesoporous interstitial and substitutional nitrogen-containing titanium dioxide photocatalysts prepared by acid-assisted sol.gel procedure. J. Iran. Chem. Soc. 11: 1363-1371.

[11] Ohno T., Tokieda K., Higashida S., Matsumura M., (2003), Synergism between rutile and anatase TiO2 particles in photocatalytic oxidation of naphthalene. Appl. Catal. A. 244: 383-391.

[12] Bu X., Wang Y., Li J., Zhang C., (2015), Improving the visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by combining sulfur doping and rectorite carrier. J. Alloy. Compd. 628: 20-26.

[13] Zhang R., Gao L., (2002), Synthesis of nanosized TiO2 by hydrolysis ofalkoxide titanium in micelles.Key. Eng. Mater. 573: 224-226.

[14] Klingenberg B., Vannice M. A., (1996), Influence of  Pretreatment on Lanthanum Nitrate, Carbonate, and Oxide Powders. Chem. Mater. 8: 2755-2768.

[15] Schrijnemakers K., Impens N. R. E. N., Vansant E. F., (1999), Deposition of a titania coating on silica by means of the chemical surfacecoating. Langmuir. 15: 5807-5813.

[16] Wu W. C., Chuang C. C., Lin J. L.,(2000), Bonding geometry and reactivity of methoxy and ethoxy groups adsorbed on powdered TiO2. J. Phys. Chem. B. 104: 8719- 8724.

[17] Liu S., Chen X., (2008), Visible light response TiO2 photocatalyst realized by cationic S-doping and its application for phenol degradation. J. Hazar. Mater. 152: 48-55.

[18] Madarasz J., Braileanu A., Pokol G., (2008), Comprehensive evolved gas analysis of amorphous precursors for S-doped titania by in situ TG.FTIR and TG/DTA.MS. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 82: 292-297.

[19] Tonejc A. M., Turkovic A., Gotic M., Music S.,Vukovic M.,Trojko R.,Tonejc A., (1997), HREM, TEM and XRD Observation of Nanocrystalline Phase in TiO2 Obtained by the Sol-Jel Method. Mater. Lett. 31: 127-131.

[20] Peercy P. S., (2000), The drive to miniaturization. Nature. 406: 1023-1026.

[21] Wang D. J, Masuda Y., Seo W. S., Koumoto K., (2002), Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices composed of biomimetically synthesized TiO2dielectric thin films. Key. Eng. Mater. 214: 163-168.

[22] Janitabar Darzi S., Mahjoub A. R., Sarfi S., (2012), Visible- Light- Active Nitrogen Doped TiO2 nanoparticles Prepared by Sol- Gel Acid Catalyzed reaction. Iranian. J. Mater. Sci. Eng. 9: 17-23.

[23] Janitabar Darzi S., Mahjoub A. R., Hosseinian A., (2010), Structural, Optical and Photocatalytic Properties of Sol. Gel Synthesized Mesoporous TiO2 Film. J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 10: 1-5.

[24] Umebayashi T., Yamaki T., Tanaka S., Asahi K., (2003), Visible light-induced degradation of methylene blue on Sdoped TiO2. Chem. Lett. 32: 330-331.

[25] Movahedi M.,Mahjoub A. R.,Janitabar-Darzi S., (2009), Photodegradation of Congo Red in Aqueous Solution on ZnO as an Alternative Catalyst to TiO2. J. Iran. Chem. Soc. 6: 570-577.

[26] Fengyu W., Liangsuo N., Peng C., (2008), Preparation  and characterization of N.S-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity. J. Hazard. Mater. 156: 135-140.