Structure of Lattice Strain and effect of sol concentration on the characterization of TiO2-CuO-SiO2 nanoparticles

Document Type : Reasearch Paper


1 Department of Engineering, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran.

2 Department of physics, university of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.



We report on the synthesis, morphology, chemically and structurally of TiO2-CuO-SiO2 nanostructure with different precursors molar ratio and calcined temperatures. In the present work, ternary reactive powders in the TiO2-CuO-SiO2 systems have been obtained using the sol-gel method, by the simultaneous gelation of all cations. The compounds and other elements change in special chemical and physical qualities in this nano oxide.Powders and coatings have been characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX and FTIR. X-ray diffraction showed the formation of nano crystalline CuO (Tenorite) and anatase phases. The average crystallite size was calculated by using X-ray diffraction analysis. The activation energy (E) of nanoparticles formation during thermal treatment were calculated. The lattice strain evaluated by Williamson-Hall's equation. SEM revealed that nanoaggregation structure formed by increasing the calcined temperature and grains like to make a spherical shape. EDX spectroscopy confirmed the composition of the ternary powders and coating, which are formed during the gelation process. FTIR spectra showed that Si-O-Ti, Ti-O, Cu-O, Ti-O-Ti, Ti-OH and Si-O-Si bonds are formed and indicated that titanium is in four-fold coordination with oxygen in the SiO4-. The effects of chemical compositions and the strong process on the surface topography and the crystallization of anatase and CuO (Tenorite) were studied. With increasing the molar ratio (content of CuO) in as-prepared state, the formation of rod region was more prominent than agglomerate region.