Plant-mediated synthesis of Silver nanoparticles by two species of Cynanchum L. (Apocynaceae): A comparative approach on its physical characteristics

Document Type: Reasearch Paper


Cell and Molecular Biology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala, India.


The present study evaluates the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) mediated by xerophytic plants, Cynanchum viminale and Cynanchum sarcomedium. The reaction between plant extracts and silver nitrate solution resulted in a yellowish brown/dark brown colored solution which suggests the formation of SNPs. Physical characteristics of synthesized SNPs were determined using UV-Vis spectral, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) analyses. The UV-Vis spectrum showed a maximum absorbance of SNPs at 500 nm for SNPs synthesized by C. viminale whereas maximum absorbance of 1.87 was observed at 400 nm for C. sarcomedium. Agglomerated nanoparticles were synthesized by C. viminale with an average diameter of ~ 60-68 nm as depicted by SEM. Nearly spherical nanoparticles of average size of ~ 60-85 nm were obtained by C. sarcomedium extract. A strong signal of silver at 3 KeV was confirmed by EDAX analysis for SNPs produced by both plants. Thus, the present green synthesis offers a viable and an ecofriendly way of fabrication of benign SNPs without any huge inputs in terms of energy and waste.


Main Subjects

[1] Nazeruddin G. M., Prasad N. R., Prasad S. R., Shaikh Y. I., Waghmare S. R., Adhyapak P., (2014b), Coriandrum sativum seed extract assisted in situ green synthesis of silver nanoparticle and its anti-microbial activity. Indust. Crops and Products. 60: 212–216.

[2] Suliman Y., Omar A., Ali D., Alarifi S., Harrath A. H., Mansour L., Alwasel S. H., (2015), Evaluation of cytotoxic, oxidative stress, proinflammatory and genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial cells. Environ. Toxicol. 30: 149–160.

[3] Dipankar C., Murugan S., (2012), The green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Iresine herbstii leaf aqueous extracts. Colloids and Surf. B: Biointerf. 98: 112–119.

[4] Shankar S. S., Rai A., Ahmad A., Sastry M., (2004), Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag and bimetallic Au core–Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J. Colloid and Interf. Sci. 275: 496–502.

[5] Meve U., Liede-Schumann S., (2012), Taxonomic dissolution of Sarcostemma (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae). Kew Bullet. 67: 751–758.

[6] Bhagyanathan N. K., Thoppil J. E., (2016), Genotoxic potential of Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede coupled with its modulatory action on oxidative-stress–mediated genotoxicity by hydrogen peroxide. Turk. J. Biol. 40: 120–129.

[7] Bhagyanathan N. K., Thoppil J. E., (2016), Pre-apoptotic activity of aqueous extracts of Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede on cells of Allium cepa and human erythrocytes. Protoplasma. 253: 1433–1438.

[8] Sathishkumar G., Gobinath C., Karpagam K., Hemamalini V., Premkumar K., Sivaramakrishnan S., (2012), Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoscale particles using Morinda citrifolia L. and its inhibitory activity against human pathogens. Colloids and Surf. B: Biointerf. 95: 235–240.

[9] Kumar D. A., Palanichamy V., Roopan S. M., (2014), Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera dentata leaf extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial activity. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Mole. Biomol. Spec. 127: 168–171.

[10] Puišo J., Jonkuvienė D., Mačionienė I., Šalomskienė J., Jasutienė I., Kondrotas R., (2014), Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using lingonberry and cranberry juices and their antimicrobial activity. Colloids and Surf. B: Biointerf. 121: 214–221.

[11] Sinha S. N., Paul D., Halder N., Sengupta D., Patra S. K., (2015), Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fresh water green alga Pithophora oedogonia (Mont.) Wittrock and evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Appl. Nanosci. 5: 703–709.

[12] Stamplecoskie K. G., Scaiano J. C., (2010), Light emitting diode irradiation can control the morphology and optical properties of silver nanoparticles. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132: 1825–1827.

[13] Raman R. P., Parthiban S., Srinithya B., Kumar V. V., Anthony S. P., Sivasubramanian A., Muthuraman M. S., (2015), Biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesis using the extract of the medicinal plant Clerodendron serratum and its in-vitro antiproliferative activity. Mat.Lett. 160: 400–403.

[14] Shameli K., Ahmad M. B., Jazayeri S. D., Shabanzadeh P., Sangpour P., Jahangirian H., Gharayebi Y., (2012), Investigation of antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles prepared via green method. Chem.Central J. 6: 73–82.

[15] Patil B. M., Hooli A. A., (2013), Evaluation of antibacterial activities of environmental benign synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the flower extracts of Plumeria Alba Linn. J. NanoSci. NanoEng. Appl. 3: 13–20.

[16] Lee K. S., El-Sayed M. A., (2006), Gold and silver nanoparticles in sensing and imaging: Sensitivity of plasmon response to size, shape, and metal composition. J.  Phys. Chem. B. 110: 19220–19225.

[17] Markus J., Wang D., Kim Y. J., Ahn S., Mathiyalagan R., Wang C., Yang D. C., (2017), Biosynthesis, characterization, and bioactivities evaluation of silver and gold nanoparticles mediated by the roots of Chinese herbal Angelica pubescens Maxim. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12: 46–57.

[18] Rahisuddin A., (2016), Extracellular synthesis of silver dimer nanoparticles using Callistemon viminalis (bottlebrush) extract and evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Spec. Lett. 49: 268–275.

[19] Kreibig U., Vollmer M., (2013), Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Vol. 25). Springer Science & Business Media. New York.

[20] Chaudhuri S. K., Chandela S., Malodia L., (2016), Plant mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Tecomella undulata leaf extract and their characterization. Nano Biomed. Eng. 8: 1–8.

[21] Mittal A. K., Chisti Y., Banerjee U. C., (2013), Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts. Biotech. Adv. 31: 346–356.

[22] Veerasamy R., Xin T. Z., Gunasagaran S., Xiang T. F. W., Yang E. F. C., Jeyakumar N., Dhanaraj S. A., (2011), Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using mangosteen leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 15: 113–120.

[23] Vijayakumar M., Priya K., Nancy F. T., Noorlidah A., Ahmed A. B. A., (2013), Biosynthesis, characterisation and anti-bacterial effect of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using Artemisia nilagirica. Ind. Crops and Prod. 41: 235–240.

[24] Sharma V. K., Yngard R. A., Lin, Y., (2009), Silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis and their antimicrobial activities. Adv. Colloid Interf. Sci. 145: 83–96.

[25] Khanra K., Panja S., Choudhuri I., Chakraborty A., Bhattacharyya N., (2015), Evaluation of antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Scoparia dulcis. Nano Biomed. Eng. 7: 128–133.

[26] Kotakadi V. S., Rao Y. S., Gaddam S. A., Prasad T. N. V. K. V., Reddy A. V., Gopal D. S., (2013), Simple and rapid biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using dried leaves of Catharanthus roseus. Linn. G. Donn and its antimicrobial activity. Colloids Surf. B: Biointerf. 105: 194–198.

[27] Prabhu S., Poulose E. K., (2012), Silver nanoparticles: Mechanism of antimicrobial action, synthesis, medical applications, and toxicity effects. Int. Nano Lett. 2: 1–10.

[28] Habibi B., Hadilou H., Mollaei S., Yazdinezhad A., (2017), Green synthesis of Silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Prangos ferulaceae leaves. Int. J. Nano Dimens. 8: 132-141.